Tackling Harmful Alcohol Use (May 2015)
Economics and Public Health Policy (OECD)
Historic Requests for Treatment and Prevention in President Obama’s 2016 Budget (February 2015)
In response to America’s drug problem, the 2016 Budget reflects the Administration’s ongoing commitment to reducing drug use and its consequences through a balanced approach rooted in science. Budget highlights (ONDCP)
Understanding the Costs and Savings to Public Services of Different Treatment Pathways for Clients Dependent on Opiates (January 2015)
This paper presents a summary of analysis that considered the costs and savings to public services that might be generated from those receiving treatment for opiate dependence (Department for Work and Pensions, UK)
HIV sweeps across eastern Europe amid economic crisis (January 2015)
HIV is spreading at a dangerous rate in nations around the Black Sea, passing a record 100,000 new cases yearly (EU Observer)
The Rise and Challenge of Dark Net Drug Markets (January 2015)
This policy brief examines the expansion of drug markets on the Dark Net or ‘hidden web’ and the challenges they pose for both law enforcement agencies and the international legal framework within which those agencies ultimately operate (GDPO)
How do drug market changes affect characteristics of injecting initiation and subsequent patterns of drug use? Findings from a cohort of regular heroin and methamphetamine injectors in Melbourne, Australia (January 2015)
The drug market period in which injecting initiation occurred influenced the first drug injected and influenced some aspects of subsequent drug use. In the context of highly dynamic drug markets in which polydrug use is common there is a need for broad harm reduction and drug treatment services which are flexible and responsive to changing patterns of drug use (Drug Policy)
Financing drug policy in Europe in the wake of the economic recession (December 2014)
The economic crisis that Europe experienced in 2008 and later presented a grave challenge to public finances. Countries responded to this by undertaking fiscal consolidation. By examining public expenditure in the areas where most drug-related activities are provided, this report looks at how austerity affected responses to the drugs problem (EMCDDA)
Substance Abuse Costs Canadian Hospitals Hundreds of Millions of Dollars per Year (November 2014)
Analysing the latest data provided by the Canadian Institute for Health Information, CCSA’s report, The Impact of Substance Use Disorders on Hospital Use, found the cost of hospitalizing people with substance use disorders is significant, increasing 22% over five years to $267 million in 2011 from $219 million in 2006 (CCSA)
Drugnet Europe 88 (November 2014)
Includes: Financing drug policy in Europe in the wake of the economic recession | Preventing opioid deaths — legal issues around the provision of naloxone (EMCDDA)
Illicit drug markets in Ireland (October 2014)
Through in-depth research with people involved in the illicit drug market in Ireland, as drug users or sellers, as professionals responding to it or as residents affected by it, this research fills a significant knowledge gap in this important area of Irish drug policy (NACDA)
Benefit claimants with a main disabling condition of drug and alcohol misuse (June 2014)
Number of claimants receiving incapacity benefits with a primary disabling condition of alcohol or drug misuse, from 2007 to 2013 (Government, UK)
National Accounts articles, Inclusion of Illegal Drugs and Prostitution in the UK National Accounts (June 2014)
This article covers the inclusion of illegal drugs and prostitution activity in GDP and its components (Office for National Statistics, UK)
Global Synthetic Drugs Assessment (May 2014)
Amphetamine-type sti mulants and new psychoacti ve substances (UNODC)
Ending the Drug Wars (May 2014)
Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy
Development and process evaluation of an educational intervention to support primary care of problem alcohol among drug users (May 2014)
This paper describes the development and process evaluation of an educational intervention, designed to help general practitioners (GPs) identify and manage problem alcohol use among problem drug users (Drugs and Alcohol Today)
Ending the Drug Wars (May 2014)
Report of the LSE Expert Group on the Economics of Drug Policy (LSE)
The Australian Crime Commission Illicit Drug Data Report 2012–13 (April 2014)
Provides a snapshot of the Australian illicit drug market (ACC)
How Much Do Americans Really Spend on Drugs Each Year? (March 2014)
The consequences of drug use in our communities are important to measure so that we can better understand both the scope of the problem and the scale of response required. Drug problems intersect with, and contribute to, many challenges our Nation faces. Read the full report. (ONDCP)
The President's FY 2015 Budget (March 2014)
The President’s National Drug Control Strategy represents a 21st century approach to drug policy that outlines innovative policies and programs and recognizes that substance use disorders are not just a criminal justice issue, but also a major public health concern.The drug control budget request (ONDCP)
Estimating public expenditure on drug-law offenders in prison in Europe (Feb 2014)
This study estimates how much 22 European countries spent on drug-law offenders in prisons during the last decade. Based on this, an estimate for public expenditure on drug-law offenders at the European level was made (EMCDDA)
EMCDDA Budget 2014 (Jan 2014)
The EMCDDA receives stable funding under Commission budget line B3-441 of the general budget of the European Union. Each year, a preliminary draft budget is presented by the Centre's Director to the Management Board, which may modify the draft before adopting it and submitting it to the European Commission
Drug supply reduction and internal security policies in the European Union: an overview (Dec 2013)
The production and trafficking of illicit drugs poses complex and interlinked problems, which have a negative impact on public health and the security and stability of society. Focusing on actions directed at the EU’s internal security situation, this paper elaborates who is involved in setting policy, what legal and funding basis for action has been established, and what the main priorities are. Download (EMCDDA)
Cost-effectiveness of injectable opioid treatment v. oral methadone for chronic heroin addiction (Nov 2013)
Injectable opioid treatments are more cost-effective than optimised oral methadone for chronic refractory heroin addiction. The choice between supervised injectable heroin and injectable methadone is less clear (British Journal of Psychiatry)
The Third Sector and the Near Future of Drug and Alcohol Treatment (Oct 2013)
This brief paper looks at some different ways of having worthwhile discussions about the future of our field (Lifeline)
Trends in Drug Use and Related Harms in Australia, 2001 to 2013 (Oct 2013)
The purpose of this resource document is to collate various data sources that document trends in alcohol and other drug use and harms in Australia (NDARC)
Cost-effectiveness of injectable opioid treatment v. oral methadone for chronic heroin addiction (Oct 2013)
Injectable opioid treatments are more cost-effective than optimised oral methadone for chronic refractory heroin addiction. The choice between supervised injectable heroin and injectable methadone is less clear. There is currently evidence to suggest superior effectiveness of injectable heroin but at a cost that policy makers may find unacceptable (British Journal of Psychiatry)
The temporal relationship between drug supply indicators: an audit of international government surveillance systems (Oct 2013)
With few exceptions and despite increasing investments in enforcement-based supply reduction efforts aimed at disrupting global drug supply, illegal drug prices have generally decreased while drug purity has generally increased since 1990. These findings suggest that expanding efforts at controlling the global illegal drug market through law enforcement are failing (BMJ)
The World Drug Report (Sept 2013)
A comprehensive overview of the latest developments in drug markets. It covers production, trafficking, consumption and the related health consequences - Full report (UNODC)
Licensing and regulation of the cannabis market in England and Wales (Sept 2013)
Towards a cost-benefit analysis (Institute for Social and Economic Research)
Government Drug Policy Expenditure in Australia June 2013
This study provides a new estimate of Australian governments’ direct or proactive spending on illicit drug policy for 2009/10. Four drug policy domains were examined: prevention, treatment, harm reduction and law enforcement (DPMP, Australia)
Illicit Trade in Ireland: Uncovering the cost to the Irish economy May 2013
The objective of this report is to provide a detailed assessment of illicit trade in Ireland across a select number of sectors, namely fuel, tobacco, digital media and pharmaceuticals | Grant Thornton, Ireland
National Drug Control Budget April 2013
In support of the 2013 National Drug Control Strategy (Strategy), the President requests $25.4 billion in Fiscal Year (FY) 2014 to reduce drug use and its consequences in the United States. This represents an increase of $0.9 billion (3.7%) over the FY 2012 final level of $24.5 billion (White House, USA)
A growing EU illicit drugs market shows the impact of the crisis March 2013
The economic crisis is expected to have a major impact on the drugs market, for example through an increase of demand for illicit drugs, according to the findings of a study - Further insights into aspects of the EU illicit drugs market - published today by the (European Commission, Belgium)
EU drug markets report: a strategic analysis January 2013
he EU drug markets report is the first comprehensive overview of illicit drug markets in the European Union. It covers issues such as production, consumer markets, trafficking, organised crime and policy responses, along with a review of the markets for heroin, cocaine, cannabis, amphetamine, methamphetamine, ecstasy and new psychoactive substances (EMCDDA, Europol, Portugal)
National drug-related public expenditure December 2012
This is the first set of national profiles that the EMCDDA has produced on drug-related public expenditure (EMCDDA)
The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse in Alaska, 2012 Update October 2012
This study addresses tangible economic costs such as lost earnings or costs of government programs. However, there are mental and emotional costs that result from alcohol and drug abuse that are extremely difficult to measure and are not included in this report | Alaska Mental Health Board & Advisory Board on Alcoholism and Drug Abuse
All cut up August 2012
Cocaine is cheaper, but weaker | The Economist
EMCDDA annual accounts 2011 July 2012
The financial statements of the EMCDDA and the reports on implementation of the budget of the EMCDDA
2nd Australian Needle and Syringe Program Return on Investment Study June 2012
The original English language summary paper was prepared by APDIC in consultation with the authors of the major report from the Kirby Institute and is currently available on the APDIC website - English download | Australian National Council on Drugs
Report estimates number of crimes prevented by drug treatment May 2012
Every £100 invested in drug treatment services prevents a crime being committed, according to a study released today - 'Estimating the Crime Reduction Benefits of Drug Treatment and Recovery' | National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, UK
Drug Trafficking, Violence, and Instability May 2012
The complex relationship between human security, crime, illicit economies, and law enforcement. It also seeks to disentangle the linkages between insurgency on the one hand and drug trafficking and organized crime | Strategic Studies Institute
2nd Australian Needle and Syringe Program Return on Investment Study May 2012
The Australian National Council on Drugs (ANCD) Asia Pacific Drug Issues Committee (APDIC) is pleased to announce the availability of translations of a new summary paper based on the influential 2nd Australian Needle and Syringe Program Return on Investment Study - English | Australian National Council on Drugs
ACT Trends in Ecstasy and Related Drug Markets 2011 May 2012
Findings from the Ecstasy and Related Drugs Reporting System (EDRS) - Download | NDARC, Australia
NSW Drug Trends 2011 May 2012
Findings from the Illicit Drug Reporting System (IDRS) - Download | NDARC, Australia
More Drug Trends Jurisdictional Reports May 2012
Full list of reports from | NDARC, Australia
A war against people who use drugs April 2012
The costs | Eurasian Harm Reduction Network
Providing guidance to policy makers for developing coherent policies for licit and illicit drugs April 2012
This policy paper aims to provide decision makers and policy managers with an overview of the basic principles, instruments and tools that will support them in developing, reviewing and implementing drug policies, strategies and action plans | Pompidou Group, Europe
Cost-effectiveness of diacetylmorphine versus methadone for chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment March 2012
Using mathematical modelling to extrapolate results from the North American Opiate Medication Initiative, we found that diacetylmorphine may be more effective and less costly than methadone among people with chronic opioid dependence refractory to treatment | Canadian Medical Association Journal
EMCDDA Budget 2012 March 2012
Each year, a preliminary draft budget is presented by the Centre's Director to the Management Board, which may modify the draft before adopting it and submitting it to the European Commission - Download | EMCDDA
Drug markets and corruption in Tajikistan January 2012
This report is a short summary of a book chapter published in the Russian language | Eurasian Harm Reduction Network
Cost and financing of drug treatment services in Europe November 2011
This Selected issue provides an exploratory European overview of costs associated with treatment for drug dependence. The cost of drug treatment in Europe is looked at from two main angles in this report. Download | EMCDDA
Pilot study on wholesale drug prices in Europe October 2011
In order to assess the feasibility of this collection process, this study provides an overview of the procedures implemented nationally and of the information available in European countries on wholesale drug prices PDF | EMCDDA
Estimating illicit financial flows resulting from drug trafficking October 2011
The purpose of this study was to examine the magnitude of illicit funds generated by drug trafficking and organized crime, and the extent to which they are laundered | UNODC
Opium Production in Afghanistan Shows Increase, Prices set to Rise October 2011
Opium poppy-crop cultivation in Afghanistan reached 131,000 hectares in 2011, 7 per cent higher than in 2010, due to insecurity and high prices, said the summary findings of the 2011 Afghan Opium Survey released today (11 October)by the Ministry of Counter Narcotics (MCN) and the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC)
The Financial Burden of Substance Abuse in West Virginia September 2011
The report, part of a larger Family Funding Study project, is the first in series 2 in which the cost of drug and alcohol abuse to West Virginia’s criminal justice, healthcare, education, welfare, and workforce systems will be examined | WV Prevention Resource Center, USA
2011 Global ATS Assessment September 2011
It ranks amphetamine-type stimulants such as ecstasy and methamphetamine as the world's second most widely used type of drug after cannabis | United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime
The global Afghan opium trade July 2011
A Threat Assessment | UNODC
Piloting Payment by Results for Drugs Recovery - draft outcome definitions July 2011
A Co-design Group - consisting of representatives from local partnerships in the pilot sites and central cross government departments and experts from the field – has been developing proposals to measure these outcomes and set eligibility criteria | Department of Health, UK
2011 National Drug Control Strategy - Budget summary July 2011
FY 2011 Budget Summary | ONDCP, USA
Annual Accounts 2010/2011 July 2011
National Treatment Agency, UK
Annual accounts 2010 July 2011
The Transatlantic Cocaine Market June 2011
While almost all of the cocaine produced globally comes from the Andean region (Colombia, Peru and the Plurinational State of Bolivia), the location of demand has shifted drastically in the last decade | UNODC
The Latin American Drug Trade June 2011
Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response | Rand Corporation, USA
Inquiry into the adequacy of aviation and maritime security measures to combat serious and organised crime June 2011
Appendix4: International and Domestic Illicit Drug Prices | Parliamentary Joint Committee on Law Enforcement, Australia
The Latin American Drug Trade June 2011
Scope, Dimensions, Impact, and Response | RAND Corporation, USA
Facing the challenge June 2011
The impact of recession and unemployment on men’s health in Ireland | Institute of Public Health, Ireland
The Economics of Risky Health Behaviors June 2011
Risky health behaviors such as smoking, drinking alcohol, drug use ... are a major source of preventable deaths. This chapter overviews the theoretical frameworks for, and empirical evidence on, the economics of risky health behaviors | Institute for the Study of Labor, Bonn
The Economic Impact of Illicit Drug Use on American Society May 2011
The assessment is conducted within a Cost of Illness framework that has guided work of this kind for several decades. As such, it monetizes the consequences of illicit drug use, thereby allowing its impact to be gauged relative to other social problems | National Drug Intelligence Center, U.S. Department of Justice
An Assessment of the Scientific Support Underlying the FY2011 Budget Priorities of the Office of National Drug Control Policy April 2011
Testimony presented before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, Subcommittee on Domestic Policy - Full document | RAND, USA
Afghanistan's Drug Career: Evolution from a War Economy to a Drug Economy April 2011
German research paper looks into the beginnings and the evolution of drug production in Afghanistan during decades-long war | German Institute for International and Security Affairs
Specialist Drug and Alcohol Services for Young People – A Cost-Benefit Analysis February 2011
This summary of the report looks at the costs and benefits associated with young people’s drug and alcohol treatment [Frontier Economics, Department of Education, UK]
Cost benefit analysis February 2011
Full report [Frontier Economics, Department of Education, UK]
FRANK drugs advisory service February 2011
The total annual budget for FRANK across all three government departments for the 2009/10 financial year was £5.07 million [Home Office, UK]
Budget 2011 February 2011
The EMCDDA receives stable funding under Commission budget line B3-441 of the general budget of the European Union [EMCDDA]
Changes to the National Drug Control Budget February 2011
The National Drug Control Strategy: FY 2012 Budget and Performance Summary reflects the new budget structure and framework, providing an inclusive and true description of the Federal contribution dedicated to the drug-control mission. Executive Summary - Full Text [ONDCP, USA]
2010 California Needs Assessment Report February 2011
With the annual cost of alcohol use in California at $38.4 billion and illicit drug abuse at $23.8 billion, the combined toll on the state ($62.2 billion) cannot be sustained from a fiscal standpoint [California Department of Alcohol and Drug Programs, USA]
High opium prices threaten drug control efforts of recent years January 2011
Rising opium prices may encourage farmers in Afghanistan to plant more opium poppy - Afghanistan Opium Survey 2010 [UNODC]
Funding allocation for drug misuse treatment 2011-12 December 2010
Following the publication of the Drug Strategy, we are now able to give an outline of the national funding streams in support of community drug treatment in England - Read letter [National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, UK]
The price of getting high, stoned and drunk in BC December 2010
A comparison of minimum prices for alcohol and other psychoactive substances [Centre for Addictions Research, Canada]
Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Drug Prohibition/Regulation October 2010
Transform launches updated and re-designed 'Comparative Cost-Effectiveness of Drug Prohibition/Regulation' report [TDPF, UK]
Reducing Drug Trafficking Revenues and Violence in Mexico October 2010
This paper examines how marijuana legalization in California might influence DTO revenues and the violence in Mexico PDF [RAND, USA]
The Financial Burden of Substance Abuse in West Virginia: The Welfare System October 2010
The cost of drug and alcohol use is astronomical in every societal sector [WV’s Governor-Appointed Substance Abuse Prevention & Intervention Planning Body, USA]
The Budgetary Impact of Ending Drug Prohibition September 2010
State and federal governments in the United States face massive looming fiscal deficits. One policy change that can reduce deficits is ending the drug war [CATO, USA]
Insights on the Effects of Marijuana Legalization on Prices and Consumption September 2010
Testimony presented before the California State Assembly Public Safety Committee and California State Senate Public Safety Committee on September 21, 2010 - Full document [RAND, USA]
Review of the cost of CCCC drug and alcohol services August 2010
Final report recommendations [VAADA , Australia]
Understanding illicit drug markets, supplyreduction efforts, and drug-related crime in the European Union July 2010
This document will be of interest to policymakers from the European Commission, as well as other governmental bodies which are concerned with measuring the effectiveness of their drug supply-reduction strategies [RAND]
Altered State? July 2010
Assessing How Marijuana Legalization in California Could Influence Marijuana Consumption and Public Budgets [RAND, USA]
How Might Marijuana Legalization in California Affect Public Budgets and Marijuana Consumption? July 2010
Legalizing marijuana in California would lead to a substantial decline in price, but there is much uncertainty about legalization's effect on public budgets and consumption; even minor changes in assumptions lead to major differences in outcomes PDF [RAND, USA]
NTA Annual accounts 2009/10 June 2010
[National Treatment Agency for Substance Misuse, UK]
Cost Offset of Treatment Services June 2010
Limited research in some States suggests that there is a major benefit to substance use treatment [SAMHSA, USA]
Colin Mair on Community Resilience - Video May 2010
Budget Scenario - Threat or Opportunity [FEAD, UK]
Alcohol and Drugs - a Question of Architecture May 2010
A systems mapping approach to how Scotland can reduce the damage to its population through alcohol and drugs by half by 2025 [Scotland's Futures Forum]
The Budgetary Implications of Drug Prohibition April 2010
This report examines the budgetary implications of legalizing drugs. The report estimates that legalizing drugs would save roughly $48.7 billion per year in government expenditure on enforcement of prohibition - Report PDF [Mark Haden, USA]
Guidelines for collecting data on retail drug prices in Europe: issues and challenges April 2010
The Manual raises awareness on specific issues related to collecting data on retail drug prices and offers practical suggestions PDF [EMCDDA]
An Assessment of the Scientific Support Underlying the FY2011 Budget Priorities of the Office of National Drug Control Policy April 2010
Testimony presented before the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, Subcommittee on Domestic Policy on April 14, 2010. Full document [RAND, USA]
Afghanistan cannabis survey 2009 April 2010
This report is dedicated to the memory Late Amanullah, who was tragically killed in Kandahar in October 2009 while undertaking work for this cannabis survey [UNODC]
Substance Abuse Prevention Dollars and Cents March 2010
A Cost-Benefit Analysis [SAMHSA, USA]
Tackling problem drug use March 2010
Without an evaluative framework for the Strategy as a whole, the NAO is not able to conclude positively on value for money. Executive Summary - Full Report [National Audit Office, UK]
Understanding illicit drug markets, supply-reduction efforts, and drug-related crime in the European Union February 2010
In this study we reviewed literature and RAND’s previous work in this area, and we gathered insights from European experts and policymakers. Full report - Summary [RAND, USA]
The NSDUH Report - Substance Use Treatment Need among Uninsured Workers February 2010
An estimated 3.0 million uninsured full-time workers (16.3 percent) needed substance use treatment in the past year; specifically, 13.3 percent needed alcohol use treatment, 5.6 percent needed illicit drug use treatment, and 2.7 percent needed both alcohol and illicit drug use treatment [SAMHSA, USA]
National Drug Control Budget February 2010
FY 2011 Funding Highlights [White House, USA]
FY 2011 Drug Control Program Highlights February 2010
The President’s Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 National Drug Control Budget requests $15.5 billion to reduce drug use and its consequences in the United States [White House, USA]
Federal drug control funding 2009 - 2011 February 2010
On page 143 of this report [White House, USA]
Drugs Value for Money Review July 2007 Report January 2010
Drug Strategy working document - Not Government policy [Home Office, UK]
Cost of Enforcement of Poland’s Drug Use Prevention Act January 2010
A think tank in Poland, released a report that estimates that a single article of the severe Drug Use Prevention Act of 2005 drains roughly 80 million PLN (£17.5 million) out of the public coffers each year [Institute for Public Affairs]
Drug law resentencing January 2010
Saving tax dollars with minimal community risk [Legal Aid Society of New York, USA]
Development First December 2009
A More Promising Approach to Reducing Cultivation of Crops for Illicit Markets [WOLA]
Redefining Targets December 2009
Towards a Realistic Afghan Drug Control Strategy [Transnational Institute]
Afghanistan Opium Survey 2009 December 2009
The Afghanistan Opium Survey 2009 confirms that market forces are moving against the Afghan drugs trade as prices, revenues and excess production have put a damper on supply. 147-page PDF [UNODC]
Adult family members and carers of dependent drug users - full report November 2009
The full 55-page PDF report by Prof. Alex Copello, Lorna Templeton and Dr Jane Powell [UKDPC]
How do methamphetamine users respond to changes in methamphetamine price? November 2009
The aim of the current study was to estimate how methamphetamine users would respond to changes in the prices of methamphetamine and heroin, using hypothetical drug purchasing scenarios. 16-page PDF [NSW Bureau of Crime Statistics and Research]
A Comparison of the Cost-effectiveness of the Prohibition and Regulation of Drugs November 2009
Due to limitations in available data we have restricted this analysis to heroin and cocaine use (the drugs identified by Government as causing the most harm) in England and Wales. 53-page PDF [TDPF, UK]
Market innovation and sophistication challenge drug policies, says EMCDDA November 2009
Europe is faced with an increasingly complex and volatile synthetic drug market, says the EU drugs agency [EMCDDA]
Needle and Syringe Program November 2009
Return on investment 2: evaluating the cost-effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in Australia 2009 [DoH, Australia]
Needle & Syringe Program Return on Investment Study October 2009
The study seeks to analyse the effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in preventing transmission of HIV, and hepatitis C (HCV) in Australia from 1991 (that is from when NSPs were well established in all jurisdictions except Tasmania) to the end of 2000. 166-page PDF Summary report [Department of Health, Australia]
Repertoires of distinction October 2009
Exploring patterns of weekend polydrug use within local leisure scenes across the English night time economy. 29-page PDF [Criminology and Criminal Justice, UK]
State Budget Submission 2010/11 October 2009
In developing this submission, VAADA examined a range of data indicative of treatment activity and demands on services across the sector. This data highlighted current pressure points on services’ capacity, and identified service gaps and areas of growing demand. The analysis illustrates a clear need for additional resourcing to respond to alcohol misuse; as well as investment along Melbourne’s growth corridors and in the health of Victoria’s ageing population. 34-page PDF [Victorian Alcohol and Drug Association, Australia]
Return on Investment 2 October 2009
A evaluation report published by Commonwealth Department of Health, conducted by a team of investigators at the National Centre in HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 2MB PDF [Australian Government]
Comparing the drug situation across countries: Problems, Pitfalls and Possibilities September 2009
This briefing paper seeks to compare the drugs situation in a number of developed countries. Data from six European countries, the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand are included [Beckley Foundation Drug Policy Programme]
FEAD (Film Exchange on Alcohol and Drugs) August 2009
A resource that brings short video presentations from leading figures in the alcohol and drugs field direct to your screen. The contributors cover a range of topics honestly and directly - including: achievements, problem areas, and reflections on the field's history. Many people have found the website useful in helping discussions and expanding on practice and theory. Please feel free to use the material to enrich your events, seminars, groups, teaching etc
Americans of all incomes say they could not afford drug or alcohol treatment if they needed it July 2009
Nearly half of U.S. adults say that they would not be able to afford alcohol or drug treatment if they or someone in their family needed it, according to a telephone survey conducted this past June [CESAR, USA]
Unforeseen benefits: Addiction treatment reduces health care costs July 2009
This paper demonstrates how addiction treatment will contribute to containing costs in reforming America’s health system. Studies show that addiction treatment significantly reduces emergency room, inpatient and total health care costs [Open Society Institute, USA]
From Golden Triangle to Rubber Belt ? July 2009
The Future of Opium Bans in the Kokang and Wa Regions [TNI, Netherlands]
Global economic crisis and HIV July 2009
While the results of the survey are worrying, the report does give recommendations on interventions that could help to address the crisis [UNAIDS]
The Price of Everything, The Value of Nothing June 2009
A (Truly) External Review Of BERL’s Study Of Harmful Alcohol and Drug Use. 42-page PDF [Department of Economics and Finance College of Business and Economics University of Canterbury, New Zealand]
Drug Control Strategy June 2009
2010 Budget Summary. 204-page PDF [White House, USA]
Assessing Changes in Global Drug Problems, 1998–2007 May 2009
This Main Report provides a dispassionate overview of the true nature and extent of the problem today, and to assist policy makers at national and regional levels to deal with it. It was suggested that the drugs market be looked at as if it were licit, in order to get a clearer picture of the way that it works. 84-page PDF [Trimbos Institute and RAND]
Shoveling Up II: The Impact of Substance Abuse on Federal, State and Local Budgets May 2009
In this report, The National Center on Addiction and Substance Abuse (CASA) at Columbia University has identified the total amount spent by federal, state and local governments on substance abuse and addiction--the first time such an analysis has ever been undertaken. 176-page PDF [CASA. USA]
Medical profiteering: the economics of methadone dispensation May 2009
We recommend continuing the current pharmacy-based model. Any policy changes that limit or decrease access to methadone maintenance treatment should be discouraged. Recognition of the economic incentives of all parties involved is imperative in understanding the illicit drug use phenomenon and devising effective strategies to reduce the social burden it impose [CMAJ]
Lowering Expectations May 2009
Supply Control and the Resilient Cocaine Market [WOLA]
A report on Global Illicit Drugs Markets 1998-2007 May 2009
This Report provides an assessment of how the global market for drugs developed from 1998 to 2007 and describes drug policy around the globe during that period. To the extent data allow, it then assesses how much policy measures, at the national and international levels, have influenced drug problems. 74-page PDF [Europa]
Evaluation of the Mandatory Drug Testing of Arrestees Pilot May 2009
Findings of a process evaluation and cost effectiveness analysis of the three Mandatory Drug Testing of Arrestees pilot schemes in Scotland [Scottish Government, UK]
Assessing Changes in Global Drug Problems, 1998-2007 April 2009
This report provides key findings of the RAND Europe study which assesses how the global market for illicit drugs has developed from 1998 to 2007 and describes worldwide drug policies implemented during that period to address the problem [RAND]
Assessing the Operation of the Global Drug Market: Report 1 April 2009
This report is an attempt to address the challenges and reviews what is known about the operation of various markets. It offers a theoretical account for a number of the features [RAND]
Estimating the size of the global drug market: A demand-side approach: Report 2 April 2009
This report uses data on the prevalence of drug use, retail prices, and consumption patterns to generate country-level consumption and retail expenditure estimates for cannabis, heroin, cocaine, and amphetamine-type substances [RAND]
Issues in estimating the economic cost of drug abuse in consuming nations: Report 3 April 2009
This report presents a conceptual framework for constructing an estimate of the global cost of drug use. However, we conclude that it is not possible at this time to develop a meaningful comparative estimate of the cost of drug use across countries [RAND]
The Costs of Methamphetamine Use April 2009
The economic cost of methamphetamine use reached more than an estimated $23 billion in 2005, mostly from the intangible burden that addiction places on dependent users and their premature mortality and from crime and criminal justice costs [RAND, USA]
The Economic Cost of Methamphetamine Use in the United States, 2005 February 2009
This first national estimate suggests that the economic cost of methamphetamine (meth) use in the United States reached $23.4 billion in 2005. Full document (171-page PDF) or Summary (10-page PDF) [RAND, USA]
The avoidable costs of alcohol abuse in Australia and the potential benefits of effective policies to reduce the social costs of alcohol October 2008
This monograph estimates the proportion of Australian social costs of alcohol abuse which are potentially avoidable as a result of implementing appropriate public policy interventions, and the values of the potential benefits of the identified interventions. 68-page PDF [National Drugs Strategy, Australia]
Effective Dissemination report [September 2008]
An Examination of the Costs of Implementation Strategies for the AOD Field. 4MB [NCETA, Australia]
A Cost – Benefit and Cost – Effectiveness Analysis of Vancouver’s Safe Injection Facility [April 2008]
After a review of existing literature regarding both the efficacy of supervised injection sites generally, and Vancouver’s site more specifically, we engaged in two kinds of analysis to determine benefit to cost ratios for the Vancouver SIS, and cost effectiveness: linear trend analysis and mathematical modelling. 67-page PDF [Martin Andresen & Neil Boyd, Canada]
The costs of tobacco, alcohol and illicit drug abuse to Australian society in 2004/05 [April 2008]
This report is the fourth study by the present authors of the social costs of drug abuse in Australia. 143-page PDF [© Commonwealth of Australia]

Prohibitions [November 2007]

Prohibitions is a corrective to the prevailing sympathy for paternalistic authoritarianism. It is a part of the intellectual resistance movement. Each chapter considers a significant prohibition on voluntary transactions, from prostitution to recreational drugs to gambling. 140-page PDF [Institute of Economic Affairs, Australia]

Monograph # 14 Working estimates of the social costs per gram and per user for cannabis, cocaine, opiates and amphetamines [February 2007]

This work represents a first step in estimating the different social costs associated with different illicit drugs. More specifically, the report sets out in detail the annual costs in Australia (circa 2004) associated with opiates, amphetamines, cocaine, and other illicit drugs separately across two major classes of social costs: health and crime. The cost estimates are further broken down between dependent users and non-dependent users. These are then combined with prevalence and consumption to generate estimates of the:

1. social costs per drug user by drug type; and

2. social costs per kilogram (or gram) for each drug type.


The economics of preventing drug use:An introduction to the issues [2007]

Economic evaluation offers the opportunity for planners of drug prevention policy and services to be more efficient with, and to prioritise, the finite resources available for implementation. This document provides an overview of the health economics of drug prevention and discusses different methods of conducting such analyses. 35-page PDF [National Collaborating Centre for Drug Prevention, UK]


Monograph #8 A review of approaches to studying illicit drug markets [December 2005]

This Monograph (No. 08) provides a reflective account of the different disciplinary approaches to studying illicit drug markets. The term ‘drug market’ is used widely in illicit drug research, and means different things to different researchers. An economist may have a very specific view of what is meant by a drug market, and that will differ from one held by an ethnographer. The monograph endeavours to describe and explain five different disciplinary approaches to studying drug markets – ethnographic and qualitative approaches; economic approaches; behavioural and psychological research; population-based and survey research; and criminology and law enforcement evaluation. Each discipline has strengths and limitations. I do not argue for the supremacy of one approach, but that we need to appreciate the different approaches and develop better multi-disciplinary models.

Economic Benefits of Drug Treatment [February 2005]

A Critical Review of the Evidence for Policy Makers February 2005 [Treatment Research Institute at the University of Pennsylvania]


Illicit Drug Markets and Economic Irregularities [January 2005]

This paper sketches examples of an alternative reaction, focusing on idiosyncrasies of drug markets that might plausibly create counter-intuitive effects, including supply curves that slope downward because of enforcement swamping and/or a good serving as the only available store of wealth for its producer, demand reduction programs that increase demand, and consumption by “jugglers” possibly increasing rather than decreasing as prices rise. This analysis yields non-obvious policy recommendations; for example, source country control programs should concentrate on growing regions with a healthy banking sector

Jonathan P. Caulkins, Peter Reuter

Carnegie Mellon, Heinz School 2005-7, Jan 2005


Price and Purity Analysis for Illicit Drug: Data and Conceptual Issues [January 2005]

This paper reviews data and conceptual issues that people producing, analyzing, and consuming drug price and purity series should understand in order to reduce the likelihood of misinterpretation. It also identifies aspects of drug markets that are both poorly understood and relevant to some of these issues. They constitute a useful research agenda for health and law enforcement communities who would benefit from better data on the supply, availability, and use of illicit drugs

Jonathan P. Caulkins

Carnegie Mellon, Heinz School 2005-6, Jan 2005


Calculating the Social Cost of Illicit Drugs

Pompidou Group, Council Of Europe


Public expenditure

The folLowing 8 reports are all available from this home page at EMCDDA


Public spending on drugs in the European Union during the 1990s - retrospective research

An initial overview (using the information available) of the first comprehensive research carried out at European level on public expenditure [EMCDDA]


Public expenditure on drugs in the EU

Postma, M. (2004).EMCDDA


Public spending on drugs in the European Union during the 1990s, EMCDDA

Retrospective research 2003 [EMCDDA]


The Economic Case For and Against Prison

Are prison sentences really a cost-beneficial way of reducingoffending behaviour in those populations who are at risk of further offending? 20-page PDF [Matrix, UK]


Stabalization and the Price Decline of Illicit Drugs

The main finding of this paper is that the decline in the retail prices of drugs is related to the strong decline in the intermediation margin (the difference between the retail and producer prices) in the drug business. 482KB PDF [CESifo]


Connecting the Dots: ONDCP's (Reluctant) Update on Cocaine Price and Purity

A report by WOLA Senior Associate John Walsh, offering insight and analysis into the data on cocaine price and purity released (quietly) by the Office of National Drug Control Policy [WOLA]


New Study Finds Economic Benefit from Lifelong Methadone Treatment

New model estimates lifetime costs, benefits of drug use and treatment [RTI International, USA]


Economic Evaluation of Hepatitis C

The Australian Government and State and Territory Governments have committed to a variety of harm reduction, prevention and education initiatives in order to mitigate the spread of hepatitis C and other blood borne viruses. About 90% of incident cases of hepatitis C occur amongst injecting drug users (IDUs). This report is an economic evaluation of programs to control the hepatitis C epidemic [The Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing]


The Economics of Effective AIDS Treatment

Evaluating Policy Options for Thailand [World Bank]

Is the Addiction Concept Useful for Drug Policy?

The development of behavioral economics, with its prospect of integrating insights from economics and psychology, is surely one of the most exciting intellectual developments in the social and behavioral sciences in the past 20 years. And if any domain could benefit from this development, it would seem to be the domain of psychoactive drug use, where choices are so often pathological. Thus, one can imagine my surprise and dismay when I was asked to prepare an essay on new policy insights that might follow from the leading behavioral economic theories of addiction1, and I discovered that there weren’t any. Or at least, hardly any

Robert J. MacCoun

Center for the Study of Law and Society Jurisprudence and Social Policy Program. JSP/Center for the Study of Law and Society Faculty Working Papers. Paper 8 January 1, 2003


Counting the costs of crime in Australia : technical report

The report then discusses in detail the costing of particular crimes, as well as the estimation of other costs, including costs of the criminal justice system, lost productivity of prisoners, victim assistance, the security industry and insurance administration

Pat Mayhew

Australian Institute of Criminology 2003 ISBN 0 642 24273 9; ISSN 1445-7261


The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry  

Goal of the seminar was to assess the global business volume of the illegal drug industry and to look where the illegal proceeds of the industry are going. Issues discussed included: the size of the illicit drug economy and the flows, investments and collusion of drugs money in the legal economy and its alleged funding of international terrorism

Report TNI Seminar 5-6 December 2003 [Transnational Institute]


Return on Investment in Needle and Syringe Programs in Australia - Report

The study updates and expands a study previously undertaken by Hurley, Jolley and Kaldor which investigated the effectiveness and cost effectiveness of needle and syringe programs in relation to HIV/AIDS

Health Outcomes International Ltd. in association with the National Centre for HIV Epidemiology and Clinical Research andPprofessor Michael Drummond, Centre of Health Economics, York University 2002


The economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales, 2000

Estimates of the economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales are an important addition to the growing evidence base supporting the Government’s anti-drugs strategy. This information is valuable both for policy makers and for directing future research into what works in reducing illicit drug consumption, not least in terms of crime reduction and value for money

Christine Godfrey Gail Eaton Cynthia McDougall and Anthony Culyer

Home Office Research, Development and Statistics Directorate 2002 ISBN 1 84082 874 9 ISSN 0072 6435


The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry

In December 2003 the TNI Crime & Globalisation project hosted a seminar on The Economic Impact of the Illicit Drug Industry. The goal of the seminar was to re-view the substance of the existing figures of the global business volume of the illegal drug industry and the notion of where the illegal proceeds of the industry are going. Issues discussed included: the size of the illicit drug economy, money laundering, the flows, investments and presence of drugs money in the legal economy and its alleged funding of international terrorism.

Transnational Institute


The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States 1992–2002



Counting the cost: estimates of the social costs of drug abuse in Australia 1998-1999

Collins, D.J., Lapsley, H.M., (2002)


International Guidelines for Estimating the Economic Costs of Substances Abuse

Single et Al. (2001) [Word document]


The economic and social costs of class A drug use in England and Wales, 2000

Godfrey, C., Eaton, G. McDougall, C, Culyer, A. (2002) [Home Office, UK]


The Economic Costs of Drug Abuse in the United States 1992-1998

Office of National Drug Control Policy, (2002)


The economic and social costs of Class A drug use in England and Wales, 2000

The main findings from the study provide the first real evidence that costs are mostly associated with problematic drug use and drug-related crime, in particular acquisitive crime. In addition, significant cost consequences are identified for health care services, the criminal justice system and state benefits.

Christine Godfrey Gail Eaton Cynthia McDougall and Anthony Culyer

Home Office Research Study 249


The Economic Costs of Alcohol and Drug Abuse in the United States - 1992-1998

This report was developed for The Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP) which asked The Lewin Group to calculate more current estimates of the societal cost of drug abuse. In the context of this report, the phrase “drug abuse” is used to refer to consequences of using illicit drugs, as well as societal costs pertaining to the enforcement of drug laws. This study does not address costs related to abuse of or dependence on legal substances that may be termed drugs such as alcohol, tobacco, or prescription medications

Publication Number 190636 ONDCP


Poor Prescription: The Cost of Imprisoning Drug Offenders in the United States.

As America entered the new millennium we culminated the most punishing decade in our nation’s history. While the number of persons in jail and prison grew by 462,006 in the seven decades from 1910 to 1980, in the 1990s alone, the number of jail and prison inmates grew by an estimated 816,965.The cost of this massive growth in incarceration is staggering. Americans will spend nearly $40 billion on prisons and jails in the year 2000. Almost $24 billion of that will go to incarcerate 1.2 million nonviolent offenders.4 Meanwhile, in two of our nation’s largest states, California and New York, the prison budgets outstripped the budgets for higher education during the mid-1990s.

Schiraldi, V., Holman, B., & Beatty, P.

Justice Policy Institute. 2000


The Benefits and Costs of Drug Use Prevention

Clarifying a Cloudy Issue

Research brief RB-6007, 1999 RAND


Are Mandatory Minimum Drug Sentences Cost-Effective?

Research brief, RB-6003, 1997 RAND


Projecting Future Cocaine Use and Evaluating Control Strategies

Each year, the United States spends large sums of money at all levels of government to battle cocaine use. By 1992, this annual sum had reached $13 billion. Is this the most effective way to spend the money?

Research brief RB-6002, 1994 RAND


Keeping Score: The Frailties of the Federal Drug Budget

Total federal government expenditures for antidrug activities have become a centerpiece in the national debate on drug policy ... Given the prominent role that federal budget figures have come to play in the policy debate, it is noteworthy that few have paid any attention to their origins.

Patrick Murphy, issue paper, IP-138, 1994 RAND

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